1) Cardiothoracic surgery
Cardiothoracic surgeons specialise in the treatment and management of diseases that occur in the organs inside the chest and in the bony structures and tissues that form the chest cavity. Coronary artery disease is one of the most common diseases treated by cardiothoracic surgeons. General thoracic surgeons primarily treat lung cancer and diseases of the esophagus and chest wall. Congenital heart surgeons care for babies and children with holes between the heart chambers or abnormal connections within the heart. Listed below are some examples of diseases treated by cardiothoracic surgeons.
• Coronary artery disease or blockages of the arteries in the heart
• Blockages in the heart valves
• Leaking heart valves
• Abnormal enlargement or aneurysms of the large arteries in the chest
• Heart failure
• Atrial fibrillation
2) Chemical pathology
Chemical pathology is the branch of pathology which deals with the diagnosis and management of disease by use of chemicals present in body fluids and tissues. Typically, chemical pathology laboratories are the largest sub-units in pathology departments and commonly perform measurements of many different chemicals on hundreds of patient samples each day. Because many of these analyses are time-critical, the chemical pathology laboratory is usually highly automated and uses complex analysers that are capable of performing many analyses in a short time frame. Chemical pathologists are responsible for running these laboratories, ensuring the quality of the results, and providing a diagnostic service and advice to clinicians. This requires a sophisticated knowledge of the pathophysiology of disease, the diagnostic value of individual tests, and also of the work of the laboratory. A significant part of the work of the chemical pathologist entails oral communication with clinical colleagues, and for this reason significant emphasis is put on oral communication skills both in training and in assessment
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