Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test is an extensively used category of immunoassay. it is a quick test used for successfully detecting or quantifying antibody (Ab) against viruses, bacteria, and antigen (Ag).
ELISA has so named for the reason that the test technique makes the crafty use of an enzyme system and immunosorbent.
Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, the ELISA test is being widely used in the successful detection of antigen or antibody. It is as sensitive as radioimmunoassay (RIA) and needs only microlitre quantities of test reagents. It has now been generally applying in the detection of a range of antibody and antigens such as toxins, hormones, and viruses.
Following are the Salient Features of Elisa Test Procedure
Most generally used ELISA is
1 - Antigen Detection
2 - Antibody Detection
The principle of ELISA Test
Most ELISA methods effectively developed for the crafty detection of antigen or antibody has use of equivalent antibody or antigen in question which is tightly fixed on the solid phase, for instance, plastic polystyrene tube or surface of the polyvinyl plate. This kind of systems is also known as Solid Phase Immunosorbent Assay (SPIA).
The sample that comes out of the Test is added in the microtitre plate if Ag or Ab is found in the test sample, it is found by the presence of Ag-Ab reactions (with immobilized Ab or Ag). Soon after enzyme-labeled antibody is effectively added in the reaction mixture, which will with no trouble combine with either test antigen or the kind of Fc portion of test antibody.
The enzyme system consists of;
The substrate is mixed following the antigen-antibody reaction. The enzyme catalyzes (more often hydrolyzes) the substrate to give a color endpoint. The concentration of the color present in the test sample is relative to the amount of antibody or antigen.
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